SEPHARDIC MUSIC:
A CENTURY OF RECORDINGS

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Early Sephardic Repertory Notes

(1) Cohen, 1999.

(2) For more on these classifications, see Seroussi, 1995; Susana Weich-Shahak, 1994; Judith R. Cohen, 1999. For more on the recorded liturgical repertory of Haim Effendi and Isaac Algazi, see Edwin Seroussi, 1989 and same author, in press, 2008.

(3) Seroussi, 1990; Cohen, 1995. Dr. Rivka Havassy notes, "In the modern age, (Romances and Coplas) have largely been replaced by the cantiga and sung-poems." Havassy, 2007.

(4) Judith R. Cohen, private communication.

(5) Seroussi, 1990.

(6) Tonkinoise identification and some Turkish historical background information courtesy of Hugo Strtbaum, private correspondence.

(7) Benmayor, 1978.

(8) Seroussi, 2008.

(9) Kalyviotis, 1994 and in private correspondence.

(10) Dorn, 1991; Feldman, 1990. Turkish Jews drew on the same makamlar as classical Turkish Music. There are literally hundreds of makamlar, some of which are associated with particular Jewish holidays.

(11) Dorn, 1991. The Eastern (Mediterranean) and Western (North African) Sephardic traditions diverge somewhat in these performances practices. Here is a comparison table:

  Western Eastern
Melodic Orientation Modal (major and minor), with some exceptions Adheres to the Turkish/Arabic maqam.
Pitch Western concept Microtonal intonation
Tempo Even-flowing Varies
Rhythm Fixed according to the melodic scheme Varies within the phrase lengh
Phrase length Evenly distributed Varies according to the amount of vocal ornamentation
Vocal range Medium register Medium to high register
Ornamentation Slight Great, especially at the end of phrases
Tone quality Typical of indigenous Spanish balladry Typical of Middle Eastern vocal practices

Source: Adapted from Shiloah, 1992, in turn quoting Katz, 1968.

(12) Seroussi, 2008.

(13) Dorn, 1991; Cohen 1999.

(14) Maillart, 1875.

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